Commonly used unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms rely on the use of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers for navigation. To enable the autonomous navigation of cooperative UAVs in GNSS-denied environments, the use of an ultra-wideband (UWB) positioning system is proposed. This paper discusses the design and evaluation of a practical and cooperative UWB positioning system using newly available integrated radio frequency hardware and antennas. Constellation-aware parameters, as well as other effects like antenna characteristics, are taken into consideration. A non- line-of-sight rejection is implemented based on the ratio of the first path compared to the power of the cumulated channel impulse response. An experiment covering a range of positions and orientations is conducted to gain a broad, representative set of results to assess the system accuracy in real-life usage. In a first experiment the system performance achieves a root-mean-square error of under 10 cm in the horizontal plane and under 20 cm in the three-dimensional space with a probability of 95%. A GNSS emulation system is implemented to evaluate the real-time in- flight use of the UWB positioning system on an experimental UAV carrier. A proof of concept is given that the GNSS emulation may be used with commercially available UAV platforms to augment those systems with indoor navigation capabilities.